Verb Type 3 – “An” Second Endings

To tell stories and ask questions you need to do more than make simple, direct statements. You can certainly use Verb Type 1 to describe the setting and you can state what is happening, but to show that a verb is somehow connected to other thoughts you need to know the second ending for Verb Type 3 just as we did with Verb Type 2. The second ending is always used after an “A” question, a connecting word (“giishpin izhaayaan” – if I go) or following another verb (“nimbakademin mii wiisiniyaang” – just us are hungry so we are eating). Sometimes while telling a story a person will use all second endings.

When to use First Endings:

  • It is the first verb in the sentence, and it is not an “A” Question.

When to use Second Endings:

  • It is an “A” Question.
  • It is the Second, Third, Fourth… verb in the sentence.
  • The sentence starts with “if… and…” then…” you can use second endings throughout the sentence.

Let’s review our “A” Questions and our Words to Connect our Thoughts:

In English these are the “who, what, why” questions. These are also known as “A” Questions.

A Question Words

Awenen (w), Wegonesh / Wenesh (e) – Who
Aaniin (w) / Wenesh (e) – What
Aaniindi (w) / Aapiish (e) – Where
Aaniin ezhi – How
Aaniin dash / Aaniin wenji – Why
Aaniin apii (w) / Weneshpii (e) – When

Other words that connect your thoughts include:

Verb Type 3 Second Endings Connecting words

gaye, miinawaa – also, and, again
aanawi, misawaa – although
megwaa, epiichi – while
gemaa, ganabaj – maybe
noongom – today

mii dash / dash – then
mii – so
giishpin – if
azhigwa – already
waaban – tomorrow
jibwaa – before
ishkwaa – after
noonde- – before the usual time
naagaj, baamaapii – later
bijiinaago – yesterday

Here are some examples using Verb Type 3 – “an” Second Endings:

Verb Type 3 Second Endings 32-3

  1. Aaniin dash doodooshaaboo minikwaadamaan?
    Why am I drinking milk?
    Note: Placing the milk before the verb emphasizes the noun in the question. Syntax and connecting words are often used to achieve what English uses stress to achieve.
  2. Awenen minikwaadang doodooshaaboo?
    Who is drinking milk?
  3. Ningii-nandawendaanan waawanoon mii jiibaakwaadamaan waawan-biitoonigan.
    I wanted eggs so I cooked an egg sandwich.

When reviewing the chart below you will notice you do not use any prefixes when using a Second Ending.

Pronoun Pronoun In English Single Statement
*remove the “an” and conjugate
* add (an) for plural sometimes
Question or Connected
* remove the “an” and conjugate
* no plural form needed
niin I ni + verb + aan (an)
nin (initial d,j,g,z,zh)
nim (initial b)
nind (initial vowel)
verb + amaan
giin you gi + verb + aan (an)
gid (initial vowel)
gim (initial b)
verb + aman
wiin he / she o + verb + aan(an) verb + ang
niinawind just us ni + verb + aamin
nin (initial d,j,g,z,zh)
nim (initial b)
nind (initial vowel)
verb + amaang
giinawind all of us gi + verb + aamin
gid (initial vowel)
gim (initial b)
verb + amang
giinawaa you all gi + verb + aanaawaa (n)
gid (initial vowel)
gim (initial b)
verb + ameg
wiinawaa them o + verb + aanaawaa (n) verb + amowaad


Practice translating the sentences below. Underline the root verbs as you go through each sentence.

Verb Type 3 Second Endings 32-4

1. When will you have a computer?

Root Verb: ayan
Note: both the noun and verb are singular.

2. Where did he/she take off winter boots?

Root Verb: giizikan
Note: The noun is plural, but the verb does not have a plural ending when using second endings.

3. I put on a sweater after I took of a shirt.

Root Verbs: biizikan & giizikan
Note: both the nouns and verbs are singular.

4. They will cook meat and they will drink milk.

Root Verbs: jiibaakwaadan & minikwaadan
Note: the noun for ‘meat’ is plural and the verb for ‘cook’ is plural. Liquids do not become plural.

5. If all of us write songs, then all of us sing.

Root Verbs: ozhibii’an & nagamo (Verb Type 2)
Note: noun is plural, but the verb does not have a plural ending when using second endings. If a sentence starts with “if…” “and…” then…” you can use second endings throughout the sentence.

Conversation Practice:

Listen to the conversation below. Do you recognize any of the vocabulary or word parts?

Verb Type 3 Second Endings 32-5

A. Hello friend!
B. Ah! Hello!
A. Say, do you have any money?
B. I don’t have any money.
A. Ok, so loan me some then.
B. Did you hear what I said?
A. I only recall that you haven’t paid me back since the last time I loaned you money.
B. …ok, how much do you need?
A. Oh, how much do you have?