Verb Type 4 – Introduction

The first thing about Verb Type 4 is to understand how it fits with all the other verb types.

A Verb Type 4 verb is when one of the seven pronouns is doing something with a direct object of the animate (a’aw) category. This means that there are actually two pronouns involved.

Identify which type of verb is used in each sentence below by determining what is happening and whether the object (the thing being acted on) is an o’o (which uses VT3) or a wa’aw (which uses VT4).

Audio file 1

a. Nimbiizikaan bezhig eta azhigan.
I put on one only sock.
b. Giwaabamin.
I see you.
c. Gigiizikaan ina giwiiwakwaanim?
You take it off ? your hat
d. Niwii-gagwejimaa.
I will ask s/he
e. Okaadaakoon ningii-miijinan.
Carrots I did eat.
f. Gigii-amawaag mishiiminag.
You ate them the apples.

 

Here’s how to use Verb Type 4:

  • Take the root verb (like waabam, mikwenim, biizikaw or others)
  • Then put the right bits of information around it (gi + in, or o + aan, or gi + aa or sometimes just g + no ending or just an ending).
  • It is like a formula, (pronoun prefix) + (verb) + (pronoun suffix)
  • Standard prefix rules apply, just like Verb Type 2 and Verb Type 3.

For example,

  • (gi + a root verb + in) means niin does something to giin so,

    giwaabamin = I see you

  • (o + a root verb + aan) means wiin does something to another wiin so,

    owaabamaan = s/he sees him/her

  • (gi + a root verb + aa) means giin does something to wiin so,

    giwaabamaa = you see him/her

  • gi + a root verb) means giin does something to niin so,

    giwaabam = you see me

Verbs that are Transitive and Animate (one pronoun and an animate object)

  • Use this chart to add the right prefixes and suffixes to root verbs. Keep in mind, there are two pronouns.
  • Find the pronoun representing who is doing the action in the far-left column.
  • Find the pronoun representing who is having the action done to them (the object of the action) in the top row.
  • Note the difference between the Single Statement “sandwiches” highlighted in yellow and the A-Question or Connected endings in plain text.

It is important to know that there are two common endings for Verb Type 4. There are the 1) Verb Type 4 – “a” “i” “m” “n” and “zh” endings, and 2) Verb Type 4 – “aw” endings. Below is a condensed version of the Verb Type 4 – “a” “i” “m” “n” and “zh” Endings Chart. This will help you learn the basic patterns of the chart without feeling overwhelmed. Notice that the left-hand side of the chart has the same seven pronouns that you already know but in a different order so you can see the patterns of conjugation. Be sure to notice the way prefixes work differently.

For example, to say “I see you” look for ‘nii’’ on the column on the left and ‘giin’ in the row across the top of the chart. The prefixes and suffixes you see in the box below is what you use to say “giwaabamin.” To say, “Where will I see you?” translates to Aaniindi waa-waabaminan?

The highlighted formula is the Single Statement or First Endings while the –suffix below the highlighted formula is the Connected Statement or “A” Question Second Endings.

Niin
to me
Giin
to you
Wiin
to s/he
niin
I am doing
gi – in
-inan
ni – aa
-ag
giin
You are doing
gi –
-iyan
gi – aa
-ad
giinawaa
You all are doing
gi – im
-iyeg
gi – aawaa
-eg
wiin
S/he is doing
ni – ig
-id
gi – ig
– ig
o – aan
-aad
wiinawaa
They are doing
ni – igoog
-iwaad
gi – igoog
-igwaa
o – aawaan
-aawaad
niinawind
Just us are doing
gi – igoo
-igoyan
ni – aanaan
-angid
giinawind
All of us are doing
gi – aanaan
-ang


Aanikanootan (Translate It)

Now practice making different conjugations for “waabam” (to see something animate or someone).
For example: I see him.

Ni
________________
(pronoun prefix)
+ waabam
________________
(correct verb)
+ aa
________________
(pronoun suffix)
= niwaabamaa
________________
(complete Ojibwe sentence)

1. I see you.

________ + waabam + _________ = ______________________

2. When did you see him?

________ + waabam + _________ = ______________________

3. He sees me.

________ + waabam + _________ = ______________________

4. You all see her.

________ + waabam + _________ = ______________________

5. When will just us see you?

________ + waabam + _________ = ______________________

6. You see me.

________ + waabam + _________ = ______________________

7. Where did she see you?

________ + waabam + _________ = ______________________

8. All of us see her.

________ + waabam + _________ = ______________________

9. They see him.

________ + waabam + _________ = ______________________

Audio file 2

1. I see you.

gi + waabam + in = giwaabamin

2. When did you see him?

waabam + ad = Aaniin apii gii-waabamad?

Note: “A” questions only use second endings.

3. He sees me.

ni + waabam + ig = niwaabamig

4. You all see her.

gi + waabam + aawaa = giwaabamaawaa

5. When will just us see you?

waabam + igooyan = Aaniin apii waa-waabamigooyan?

Note: “A” questions only use second endings.

6. You see me.

gi + waabam = giwaabam

Note: giin to niin is one of the conjugations that does not have a suffix when using First Endings.

7. Where did she see you?

waabam + ig = Aaniindi gii-waabamig?

Note: “A” questions only use second endings.

8. All of us see her.

gi + waabam + aanaan = giwaabamaanaan

9. They see him.

o + waabam + aawaan = owaabamaawaan

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