Verb Type II – A Second Way to Say Someone is Doing Something

To tell stories and ask questions you need to do more than make simple, direct statements. You can certainly use Verb Type 1 to describe the setting and you can state what is happening, but to show that a verb is somehow connected to other thoughts you need to know the second ending for Verb Type 2. The second ending is always used after an “A” question, a connecting word (“giishpin izhaayaan” – if I go) or following another verb (“nimbakademin mii wiisiniyaang” – just us are hungry so we are eating). Sometimes while telling a story a person will use all second endings.

When to use First Endings:

  • It is the first verb in the sentence, and it is not an “A” Question.

When to use Second Endings:

  • It is the first verb in an “A” Question/
  • It is the Second, Third, Fourth… verb in the sentence.

In English these are the “who, what, why” questions. These are also known as “A” Questions.

Verb Types 2 2nd End-1

Awenen (w), Wegonesh / Wenesh (e) – Who Aaniin ezhi – How
Aaniin (w) / Wenesh (e) – What Aaniin dash / Aaniin wenji – Why
Aaniindi (w) / Aapiish (e) – Where Aaniin apii (w) / Weneshpii (e) – When

Other words that connect your thoughts include:

Verb Types 2 2nd End-2

gaye, miinawaa – also, and, again mii dash / dash – then jibwaa – before
aanawi, misawaa – although mii – so ishkwaa – after
megwaa, epiichi – while giishpin – if noonde- – before the usual time
gemaa, ganabaj – maybe azhigwa – already wenji- / onji- because, for, in

When reviewing the chart below you will notice you do not use any prefixes when using a Second Ending.

Pronoun In Ojibwe Pronoun In English First Endings
Single Statements or “ina” Questions
Second Endings
Connected Thoughts or “A” Questions
niin I

See Lesson Verb Type II – How to Say Someone Does Something for When and How to Use First Endings

verb + yaan (western)
yaanh (eastern)
giin you
verb + yan (western)
yin (eastern)
wiin he / she verb + d
niinawind just us verb + yaang
giinawind all of us
verb + yang (western)
ying (eastern)
giinawaa you all verb + yeg
wiinawaa them verb + waad

Note: There are both western (w) and eastern (e) dialect examples in the examples below.

Verb Types 2 2nd End-3

“Aanakanootan!
Translate the Following Sentences!”

1. Aaniin ezhi-bimaadiziyan?

1. How are you living?

2. Niniimimin mii dash wii-wiisiniyaang.

2. Just us dance then just us will eat.

3. Wiisiniwag miinawaa minawaanigoziwaad.

3. They eat and they are happy.

4. Wiisiniwag epiichi minawaanigoziwaad.

4. They eat while they are happy

5. Aaniindi bimibatood (w) Aapiish e-paatood (e)?

5. Where is s/he running?

6. Aaniin dash onji-ayekoziyeg?

6. Why are you all in a state of tiredness?

7. Aaniin dash onji-Anishinaabemoyang?

7. Why do all of us speak in Anishinaabemowin?

Listen to the conversation below. Do you recognize any verbs or verb parts? Do you notice when a speaker begins to use all second endings? Do you notice when one speaker says “we” and excludes the person listening?

Verb Types 2 2nd End-4

A. Aaniin ezhi-bimaadiziyan?

A: How are you living?

B: Niminobimaadiz. Aaniin apii waa-izhaayan wiisiniwigamigong?

B: I am living good. When are you going to be in the restaurant?

A: Ingodwaaso-diba’igane. Aaniin ezhichigeyan naagaj?

A: 6:00. What are you doing later?

B: Niwii-giiwe, mii dash jiibaakweyaan, mii dash giziibiiginaaganeyaan ishkwaa wiisiniyaang.

B: I am going home, then I will cook, then I will do the dishes after we (just us) eat. Where is the restaurant?

B (continued): Aaniindi ateg wiisiniwigamigong?

B: Where is the restaurant?

A: Minowaakiing, ezhinikaade Gichi-Gwiiwizens.

A: In Milwaukee. It’s called Big Boys.

Now that you have practiced using second endings, use this full chart to reference for an easier way to create sentences and stories. Practice writing your own!

Pronoun In Ojibwe Pronoun In English First Endings
Single Statements or “ina” Questions
Second Endings
Connected Thoughts or “A” Questions
niin I
ni + verb
nin (initial d,j,g,z,zh) *also remove only
nim (initial b) the last “i” or “o”
nind (initial vowel)
verb + yaan (western)
yaanh (eastern)
giin you
gi + verb *also remove only
gid (initial vowel) the last “i” or “o”
gim (initial b)
verb + yan (western)
yin (eastern)
wiin he / she o + verb *the “o” is optional verb + d
niinawind just us

ni + verb + min
nin (initial d,j,g,z,zh)
nim (initial b)
nind (initial vowel)

verb + yaang
giinawind all of us

gi + verb + min
gid (initial vowel)
gim (initial b)

verb + yang (western)
ying (eastern)
giinawaa you all

gi + verb + m
gid (initial vowel)
gim (initial b)

verb + yeg
wiinawaa them

o + verb + wag (final vowel) *”o” is optional

verb + waad